Abstracts

 

Rebonds, by Iannis Xenakis: Thoughts on Structure, Analysis, and Performance
Benjamin Duinker, McGill University

Rebonds, by Iannis Xenakis is perhaps one of the most popular and frequently performed works for solo percussion. Xenakis creates sequences based on the saturation, elaboration, and opposition of various musical elements in such a manner that the performer, analyst, and listener experience a marriage of control and chaos; of groomed processes and unstable outbursts. Such a captivating work deserves further insight than either an informed reading or performance can offer alone. There exists a need to discuss the piece simultaneously from an analytical and performance standpoint.
This project will explore issues present in both the analysis and performance of Rebonds, in the form of a comprehensive presentation featuring lecture/analysis, live demonstration, and mini-recital.
The presentation will proceed in three stages:

  1. Through a detailed score-based analysis, the underlying compositional structures (texture, timbre, rhythm, and density) at work in Rebonds A (first movement) will be presented, highlighting their development throughout the movement.
  2. The overview of Rebonds B (second movement) will proceed chronologically, with a detailed sectionalisation of the movement based on its rhythmic and textural topography.
  3. An analysis of performance considerations including logistics of sticking and instrument placement, as well as several interpretation issues. This section will draw on ideas and results presented in the first two stages.

Throughout all stages, live demonstrations will aid in the general understanding of the score analysis and evidence of logistical issues in the final stage. At the conclusion, a complete performance of the work will be presented by the author.
The realm of percussion music has received comparatively little academic/analytical attention than other instruments. This is likely due to the fact that conventional analytical idioms such as melody and harmony do not apply to this repertoire. Furthermore, the set of analytical parameters available to the study of multi-percussion performance is vast and, at present, rarely utilized in a comprehensive manner as presented here. It is the author’s hope that further work in this realm will be done concerning other major works for percussion, with the hope that it will result in a greater general understanding of the prolific amount of new music for percussion.

Balance & Bowing: Investigating the Effects of Tempo on Bowing and Torso Movements in Expert Cello Playing
Erika Donald, McGill University

Few activities are as physically and cognitively complex as playing a stringed instrument. Yet, very little is understood of the skills required, including extreme motor control and coordination, and their development or acquisition. Musicians spend countless hours honing their skills in pursuit of excellence; though a tremendous quantity of practice is necessary, it places extreme demands on musicians’ bodies and does not automatically lead to mastery. Quality of practice, including proper use of the body, is of utmost importance to optimal musical development and injury prevention.


String players suffer the highest injury rates among musicians. The postural and biomechanical demands of string playing, particularly the asymmetry of limb positions and activities, are particularly stressful on the body. While repetitive motion is often the mechanism leading to injury, contributing factors may include genetic makeup, performing technique and the amount and intensity of playing. Evidence suggests that more than half of all musicians’ symptoms may result from preventable technical faults such as poor posture and improper technique. It is therefore essential that musicians understand how to use their bodies effectively and that music teachers be able to coach students on both the artistic and athletic components of performance.


During the past two decades, following an explosion of research in the human movement disciplines and significant technological advances, much research has began to focus on evaluating movement in musical performance, using the same analytical tools. Still, relatively little is known about musicians’ movements, especially from a postural, or whole-body, perspective. Several studies have examined patterns of joint movement in the bowing arm of string players however none had previously examined the relationship between bow arm and torso movements in string playing or the effects of tempo on balance, or postural stability. This lecture will present the results of a quantitative motion capture study investigating these dimensions in the patterns of movement and coordination of a group of highly skilled cellists performing a passage of Brahms' Sonata in E minor. Emphasis will be placed on the pedagogical applications of this research and its contributions to understanding movement in performance.

The Relationship Between the Breathing Patterns of Pianists and Their Physical Movements While Executing Various Performing Tasks
Flora Nassrallah, University of Ottawa

Over the last fifty years, researchers have taken an interest in the breathing of musicians, studying the respiratory behaviours of wind players (Bouhuys, 1977; Cossette, Sliwinski, & Macklem, 2000), brass players (Shemann, 2000) and violinists (Stadler & Szende, 1965). Little is known on the breathing patterns of pianists, however. Two main studies have directly investigated the respiration of pianists (Ebert, Hefter, Binkofski, & Freund, 2002; King, 2006), looking at the relationship between meter, tempo, structure and physical movement and breathing while playing. Since it is not known whether a relationship exists between pianists’ respiratory cycles and certain physical movements they make when playing, or between breathing and certain musical elements, the first goal of this study was to determine the observable relationship between breathing cycles and movement, rhythm, meter or phrasing of pianists performing various tasks on and off the piano. Additionally, the experiment investigated the effects of experience level on breathing patterns by studying novice, university-level and professional pianists. In order to better understand this relationship, four experiments were conducted where breathing patterns were measured by inductive plethysmography while participants carried out different tasks: 1) performed finger tapping - with and without an accent - on and off the piano at specific metronome speeds, 2) repeatedly played a C major scale and a C major arpeggio, 3) played a finger exercise transcribed in five different meters and 4) performed a piano piece. During the tasks, participants wore a respiratory effort sensor belt that measured inductance changes as the thorax and abdomen expanded and contracted with breathing. The data gathered from this apparatus was synchronized with the MIDI file recordings of the various exercises performed. Data analysis allowed us to observe the relationships between breathing and finger or forearm movements caused by different musical elements during the various exercises (tapping, scale, arpeggio, exercise and score). The information obtained on the topic of breathing and pianists should be useful to piano teachers. From a pedagogical point of view, it was interesting to observe whether certain breathing patterns are common to advanced pianists, making them better performers and interpreters of the music. From a health standpoint, it could be beneficial to better understand the breathing of pianists to possibly prevent piano playing-related health injuries.


University Music Major Students’ Perceptual Span in Piano Sight Reading: Effects of Notational Complexity
YiFei Liu, University of Ottawa

Recently researchers studying music reading have been looking at perceptual span: the region around fixation from which useful information is extracted (Rayner, 1998). It has been established that perceptual span for pianists is more than two beats and less than four beats (Truitt et al., 1997). Reading skills and harmonic difficulties did not affect the span size: good sight readers and poor sight readers share similar size of perceptual span (Gilman & Underwood, 2003). However, notational complexity (the amount of visual information within certain region) did have an impact on eye movement during sight singing (Goolsby, 1994), and this effect might influence the perceptual span. No research to date has studied the relationship between notational complexity and perceptual span in piano sight playing. Our research was designed to study the effects of notational complexity on the perceptual span of university piano major students during piano sight playing by using the moving window paradigm: only a portion of the text around the fixation point was available to the reader and the music continued to appear when the eyes were looking ahead. Four window conditions (2 beats ahead, 3 beats ahead, 4 beats ahead, and no window) were applied to 16 sight-reading excerpts at the RCM grade 7 and 8 levels. All excerpts were eight measures long, classical style (homophonic), simple articulation, and no chordal movement. Four excerpts for each condition, and they were paired based on the same key signature. Each pair contained one simple and one complex example of visual information. Two beats of every music excerpt were presented before sight reading started to help the participants prepare their hand positions. Eye movement was recorded with Eyelink II: a head-mounted, binocular eye-tracking device at a sampling rate of 500 Hz. Data analysis was based on the paired excerpts across the two grade levels, with the purpose of examining whether notational complexity interacts with the perceptual span. According to the results, notational complexity did no appear to affect the perceptual span in this study since there was no statistical significance between the simple and complex excerpts. For example, both complex and simple excerpts had similar average fixation duration and average saccade length (the distance that the eyes move between fixations). However, notational complexity did have an impact on the performance level and the patterns of eye movement. Complex excerpts yielded lower performance accuracy than the simple excerpts. Complex excerpts had a longer beat duration and shorter note duration than the simple excerpts.

Robert Schumann’s ‘Kind im Einschlummern’: Schlafe or Tod?
David Blake, Stony Brook University

The title “Kind im Einschlummern,” the penultimate piece in Robert Schumann’s Kinderszenen, Op. 15 (1838), is usually translated as “Child falling asleep.” However, the phrase “in Einschlummern” is also a euphemism for dying. In this paper, I claim that Schumann exploits the ambiguity between these two connotations to construct a piece which evokes anxieties over sleeping children given contemporaneous conceptions of children, sleep, and death. My methodology is conceptualized via the literary genre of the Romantic fragment. Just as the meaning of romantic fragments was formed dialogically between their content and outside context, this paper likewise explores the particular meaning of “Kind im Einschlummern” using analysis of both the piece’s musical features as well as the historical conditions under which it was composed. First, I will closely examine the piece’s unusual sequential ending, which uses unusually voiced chords and slightly askew harmonies, from a music-theoretical standpoint. I will buttress this reading by analyzing a similar sequence in a nearly contemporaneous Lied, “Auf einer Burg” from Schumann’s Eichendorff Liederkreis, Op. 39 (1840). In the Eichendorff setting, as in the piano piece, a similarly unsettled sequence sets the poetic moment at which the subject (here King Barbarossa) enters a liminal space between life and death. This example thus links compositional procedure with hermeneutical meaning.


I will then discuss how sleep and death were conceptually linked during Schumann’s time. Given heightened infant mortality rates in Germany during the nineteenth century and the vulnerability of children to then-unknown fatal phenomena, the linkage of sleep and death was all too real for children and their anguished parents. I explore this anxiety over childhood death through the lens of the lullaby, which Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s have theorized through the notion of “territorialization,” the enacting of rhythmic “refrains” to erect a protective shelter around the child. This concept is used to reinterpret “Kind im Einschlummern” as a lullaby which depicts the anxieties over, and likenesses between, sleep and death. Ultimately, I posit that Schumann places the child within the liminal space between sleep and death, an apt depiction given the angst and uncertainty surrounding sleeping children in Schumann’s time.

Pierrot, His Modern Glory and the Role of Max Kowalski in Shaping Pierrot’s Destiny
Paulina Piedzia, Aaron Copland School of Music, Queens College

The influence of commedia dell'arte has been present in the world of music since its birth as a theatrical form of improvisation in sixteenth-century Italy and became particularly well pronounced in the first three decades of the twentieth century. Nothing illustrates this astonishing modern revival better than the evolution and artistic employment of the iconic commedia dell’arte characterof Pierrot. Pierrot not only reflected the preoccupation with commedia in various performing, visual, and literary disciplines of art, but also became an archetype embodying imaginative sensibility many artists could identify with. The two works that can be credited with bringing Pierrot’s character to its golden age in music are Stravinsky’s Petrushka (1911) and Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire (1912). While the magnitude of these works in shaping Pierrot's iconic image cannot be denied, there is a third, less known work, which arguably played a crucial role in this process. This work is Max Kowalski’s Romantic song cycle, based on Otto Hartleben’s translation of Albert Giraud’s Pierrot Lunaire. Kowalski used the same source as Schoenberg and it is possible that he was introduced to the text by Schoenberg himself. Close contemporaries, Kowalski was Schoenberg’s lawyer, Kowalski’s his interpretation evoked Schoenberg’s praise.


This paper traces the development of Pierrot as a cultural icon to its culminating position in modern music by discussing the setting of Pierrot Lunaire (1913) by Max Kowalski. This work enjoyed exceptional popularity with the general public and recognition of the composer’s contemporaries. It brought Kowalski to the attention of well-known artists, such as Hans Hotter and Alexander Kipnis. It was performed on almost every important stage in Europe during the early twentieth century next to Schoenberg’s more famous Pierrot Lunaire. His career in Germany enjoyed considerable success. In fact, in an article by the German critic, H.F. Schaub, Max Kowalski is mentioned as a “Master of German song.” The intention of this paper is to bring Kowalski into the spotlight of musical analysis and show his work integral in determining the fate of Pierrot and other elements of commedia as prevalent currents in twentieth century music.



Keynote Presentation

This Ain't the Summer of Love: Genre, History, and the Metal/Punk Continuum
Steve Waksman, Smith College

“The metal/punk continuum” is a phrase I’ve coined to denote the ongoing, ever-changing interplay between two genres that I believe are most important to understanding the state of rock music after 1970, heavy metal and punk. In this paper, I examine three songs/performances from the 1970s to identify some of the presiding tendencies of the decade: Alice Cooper’s “I’m Eighteen” (1971/72), the Runaways’ “Little Sister” (1977), and Blue Oyster Cult’s “This Ain’t the Summer of Love” (1976). These songs and performers come from various points along the metal/punk continuum, and they collectively articulate concern over two primary issues: the degree to which rock could still be understood primarily as youth music in the aftermath of the youth-based counterculture that had grown in the preceding decade and was seen to have declined; and the extent to which that counterculture and its values should serve as the measure of rock’s significance during the new decade. Engaging these larger questions regarding rock’s cultural position, these instances of the metal/punk continuum also demonstrate the important role played by music genres in making sense of rock’s history in relation to its present and future.


Professor Waksman is the award-winning author of Instruments of Desire: The Electric Guitar and the Shaping of Musical Experience (Harvard, 1999). His latest book, This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk, has just been released by the University of California Press. In 1998, his dissertation on the electric guitar won the Ralph Henry Gabriel Prize awarded by the American Studies Association. In November 2008 he was the keynote speaker at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s American Music Masters conference honoring the legacy of Les Paul. He is Professor of Music and American Studies at Smith College in Northampton, MA.


Beyond the Unspoken: Race and Sexuality in Freddie Mercury’s Silence and Sound
Lucille Mok, Harvard University

A consistent presence on the pop charts from the mid-1970s to the 1990s, the rock band Queen is a household name and for many, one of the best rock bands of all time. Their enduring success is largely indebted to the musical abilities of their lead-singer Freddie Mercury, best known for his macho onstage persona, gymnastic vocal abilities, and songwriting talent. His public persona was in a word, outrageous, and largely overshadowed the little-known history of his private life and relationships. On two issues Mercury was particularly evasive – his race and his sexuality.


In this paper I seek to explore the connections between Mercury’s image and Queen’s music to show that Mercury’s portrayal of his ethnic background and his sexuality are necessarily tied together. Mercury’s conflicted public image was constructed through explicit statements, deliberate occlusions, his music, his silence, and his sound. Mercury was largely associated with the “cock rock” genre and white male heterosexuality and most of his fans assumed he was Anglo-British. Images associated with Queen and their songs including “Fat Bottomed Girls” and “We Will Rock You” supported these assumptions. However, facts of his personal life that emerged after his death allowed for his adoption by several marginalized communities. Of Parsi heritage and born in Zanzibar, Mercury publicly distanced himself from his ethnic background. Despite his efforts, Mercury remains a hero to the international Asian community. In 2005, Time Asia named Mercury one of their official “60 Asian Heroes”, alongside Salman Rushdie, Vikram Seth, and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Similarly, Mercury denied public inquiries into his sexuality and HIV status, but has still become an icon of the gay community and has inspired mainstream calls for AIDS awareness.


Taking the initiative of David Eng and Alice Hom, the connection between race and sexuality is interrogated in an exploration of Queen’s Greatest Hits albums and their performances, especially the 1986 recording of the concert at Wembley Stadium. Judith Butler’s work on gender and performativity, and Steve Waksman’s work on the association between masculinity and the electric guitar become important in a consideration of Mercury’s reception. While definitive answers to Mercury’s mysteries are not the goal in this paper, a close look at the music, images and performances of Queen can help grapple with the nuances of the interplay between public and private in the consideration of the complex intersection of race and sexuality.

Vocal Production and Analytic Contexts in Extreme Metal Music
David Rowat, University of Ottawa

My goal is to develop an understanding of how extreme vocal strategies in metal interact with the other aspects of music such as instrumentation, recording texture and the lyrical content of a song. Traditionally, scholars have interpreted the vocal strategies of rock songs within a framework designed for music that features typical “clean” singing. However, I suggest that the vocal strategies employed in metal and its manifold styles require different approaches because there are severe sonic differences between the two singing styles. The focal point of my analysis will be the extreme vocal style that emerged in the eighties as part of the underground metal movement and has since become increasingly popular among more mainstream audiences. While classic rock singing styles are sometimes employed in these subgenres, the variety of grunts, growls and shrieks are a primary and defining element of extreme metal.


Through the analysis of a piece by the Swedish metal band Opeth, I will show how extreme vocal strategies contribute to entire new methods of vocal and musical settings that change the way the listener perceives the piece. My analysis borrows from existing work by and extends and adapts their models to demonstrate an understanding of how the voice is used. Recorded sounds feature not only extreme levels of volume, but also exploit newly developed techniques of singing and instrumentation that reveal new timbres and parameters of physical sound. These extreme metal performers do not merely turn up the volume, but rather, forge new strategies of musical expression. It is important to note that despite the extremity of the vocal style, there remains a significant degree of nuance and maneuverability within the sound. There is a full range of expressive singing in these genres that goes beyond what music theorists have considered.


Transformer: Bartók Between Research and Composition
Rachel Adelstein, The University of Chicago

It is perhaps somewhat curious that Béla Bartók conducted the bulk of his ethnographic research on folk song, yet composed more instrumental music than vocal music.  This imbalance is striking, but it is unlikely that it is either purely accidental or a purely calculated move on Bartók's part.  Instead, it is an example of the multifaceted nature of Bartók's career and self-image as a composer and a Hungarian.  Using Sherry Ortner's theory of “projects,” I argue that Bartók worked toward several distinct goals during his lifetime, and that research into vocal folk music and composing instrumental music benefited separate projects.


Because language is a significant factor that sets vocal music apart from instrumental music, I begin by examining the importance of language, ethnic identity, and changing concepts of nationalism in Bartók's ethnographic field research.  I examine Bartók's research into the folk song traditions of Hungary and Romania against the background of the intellectual climate of Hungary and central Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the privileged position of song in the creation of national identity from the time of Johann Gottfried Herder onwards.
Recognizing the barrier that the Finno-Ugric Hungarian langage places between Hungary and the Indo-European languages of Western Europe, I explore the benefits of instrumental composition for Bartók.  I discuss Hungary's liminal position between European modernity and Orientalist exoticism and Bartók's dual role as subject and scholar, as Europen and exotic Other.  Both aspects of my argument make reference to Bartók's own writings as well as to scholarly literature on Bartók, Hungary, and the intellectual world of Germany and the late Austro-Hungarian Empire.


A Unitary Interpretation of Voices in Bartok’s Bulgarian Rhythm, from Mikrokosmos Book 4, no. 115
Yi-Cheng Wu, State University of New York at Buffalo

Although several features articulate the key of G in Bartok’s Bulgarian Rhythm, the appearance of non-resolved dissonances and abundant accidentals deprive the tonality’s clarity. Marvin and Cledenning refer to this piece as “a centric nontonal composition,” and even Bartok himself describes this ambiguous phenomenon as the “altered key of G.” Therefore, applying a traditional tonal analysis to this special case isn’t relevant or insightful. In adding the analysis of set classes, we may even attain some structural scs in the music. Although several transpositions and inversions of these scs are discovered, I’m not sure the true spirit of the music can be reached. On the other hand, an adept will not overlook the evidence for Bulgarian Rhythm being narrated by two distinctive and active voices. These two voices seem to be intentionally planned through Bartok’s compositional devices of musical contour and voice-leading. Hence, I propose a theory which takes the essence of voices, contour and voice-leading, into account. I term my theory a unitary interpretation.


The core concept of this unitary interpretation is a synthesized phenomenon, integrating two elements, a source and a filter, into the formation of the voice. Through the use of Charles Adams’s contour typology, all musical contours can be classified into 15 unique contour types. Meanwhile, I maintain the original musical texture, associating the corresponding registral pitches and exploring the contextual counterpoint─ the law that synchronically and diachronically governs the musical fiber. This unitary interpretation recognizes contour types as sources, where voice-leading functions as a series of filters fitting into these sources. They plan the shape of the voice and allow, or encourage, the filters to find their own locations within the shape. Thus, contour and voice-leading work hand-in-hand to create the two distinctive and active voices in Bartok’s Bulgarian Rhythm. My analysis of Bartok’s personal musical language furnishes a more accurate picture of the feature of pitch organization in atonal music. Consequently, a unitary interpretation opens a new dialogue between music theory and free composition.

Private Rooms and Open Plains: Abstract Space in the Music of John Adams
Dan Wang, The University of Western Ontario

In his lecture “The Machine in the Garden,” John Adams remarked that the ready availability of recordings in his childhood allowed him to absorb much more music than could his predecessor Aaron Copland, who had to rely on concerts and score-reading at the piano. The advent of recorded music also caused a shift in thinking about musical space: the idea that music-making need not be confined to the boundaries of the room in which it takes place, but can rather take place in an abstract space of limitless dimension, was simply not a reality before the invention of the gramophone, but thereafter became a basic fact of how composers came to know music.


In this paper, I examine the natures of the spaces evoked in John Adams's works, be they more literal landscapes, as in Hallelujah Junction, or abstract spaces, as in On the Transmigration of Souls. As a comparison, I also examine Aaron Copland's quintessentially American landscapes as examples of depictions of space from earlier in the twentieth century. While Copland's landscapes are mostly pictorial, allusive and static, Adams is concerned with evoking the width and breadth of space rather than the objects contained within it; his music often generates the “feeling of travelling.” The ability of music not only to depict space but also to create a space of its own becomes most overt in On the Transmigration of Souls, which Adams describes as a “memory space,” where “you can go and be alone with your thoughts and emotions.”
I argue, first, that recorded sound creates the possibility for space to exist within music, rather than only being depicted by it. Recorded sound requires an imaginative leap, and it is this leap that allowed composers such as John Adams to develop the concept of space far beyond what was conceivable a generation before. I also argue that tracing the development of the concept of musical “space” in America can offer insight into the ways in which technology influenced music, and thinking about music, as its pervasiveness and potency expanded through the century.

Timbre Based Analysis in the Music of Liza Lim
Nathan Heidelberger, Oberlin Conservatory of Music

Liza Lim (b. 1966) is an active Australian composer whose music is virtually unknown in North America. Her chamber composition Songs found in dream was premiered at the Salzburg Festival in 2005. It is scored for oboe, clarinet (doubling on bass clarinet), alto saxophone, trumpet, two percussionists, cello, and bass, and it is about twelve minutes long. The piece, like much of Lim’s music, is noteworthy because it highlights timbre more than pitch or rhythm, in large part due to a proliferation of extended instrumental techniques that preclude the perception of pitch. These extended techniques pose many challenges to an analyst. Indeed, very little analytical work on timbre-centric music has been carried out. The composition thus raises questions about how timbre-based music might be analyzed and whether or not a discussion of pitch relationships, even when they appear to be salient, is relevant at all in light of the seemingly non-hierarchical, non-pitch-based nature of most of the music.


The presentation is organized into three parts. The first part provides a formal outline of the piece, which is critical to understanding its large-scale rhetoric and appreciating the interplay between different textures and tone colors. I will pay particular attention to the alternation between two different categories of extended techniques: those that are applied to pitches in order to distort them (including multiphonics and extreme sul ponticello playing) and those that are purely noise-based, having no pitch content whatsoever (including tongue slaps and air sounds). The second part of the presentation examines in detail the ways in which Lim uses extended techniques to obscure potentially significant pitch information as well as her use of traditional motivic development of rhythm when pitch is completely absent. Finally, the third part discusses the strategic use of some decisively pitch-oriented melodic fragments and their surface-level and large-scale associations. A live recording of the piece by the Australian new-music group Elision illustrates my examples.
My presentation has four aims: to provide exposure to an exciting but underrepresented composer, to demonstrate how timbre rather than pitch-hierarchies can govern the structure of a piece, to advance strategies for analyzing timbre-based compositions, and to provide a conceptual framework for the examination of other pieces by Lim as well as works by such timbre-centric composers as Salvatore Sciarrino and Helmut Lachenmann.

The Digital Orchestra: Digital Musical Instruments and Performance Practice
Xenia Pestov, Erika Donald, and D. Andrew Stewart, McGill University

When introducing new technologies into the performance milieu, we must continually re-evaluate traditional approaches to performance practice and expectations of musical expressivity. This paper addresses performance practice issues specific to three new digital musical instruments: the FM Gloves, the Tenor T-Stick and the Soprano T-Stick. These gestural controllers were developed during a three-year project at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Music, Media and Technology (CIRMMT) and McGill University, supported by the Appui à la recherche-création program of the Fonds de recherche sur la société et la culture (FQRSC) of the Quebec government.


This collaborative venture is entitled the CIRMMT/McGill Digital Orchestra Project. The Digital Orchestra was formed in 2005, and brought together researchers from three musical disciplines: performance, composition, and music technology. Over the last three years, the Digital Orchestra team has realized an expansive project that has addressed issues of real-time software systems design and implementation, digital instrument/controller design, gesturally-controlled audio systems, gesture/sound mapping strategies, and new computer music ensembles for performance and pedagogy. As a result, one of the principal outputs of the project has been the creation of several new digital musical instruments that include the FM Gloves, the Rulers, the T-Box, and the T-Stick, built by researchers from the Input Devices and Musical Interaction Laboratory (IDMIL) of McGill University. The project culminated in March of 2008 with the performances of two new compositions for the above instruments during the MusiMars Contemporary Music Festival in Montreal.
During this presentation, members of the Digital Orchestra will focus on performance with the FM Gloves and the T-Stick instruments, and give insight into effective instrumental design for musicians with, or without, technical expertise. The authors will discuss issues pertaining to these main areas:

1) The collaborative and interdisciplinary approach
2) Hardware and software design
3) Sound / gesture relationships and performing technique
4) Systems for music notation and ensemble interaction

Conclusions will be made regarding the expressive possibilities of the instruments and future directions from a performer's perspective. Following the discussion, audience members will be encouraged to physically interact with the instruments.

Between Hollywood and Gollivud, Between Jazz and Dzhaz: (Film)Music, Ideology, and Entertainment in the Soviet Musical Comedy
Peter Kupfer, The University of Chicago

The Soviet 1920s were a period of great artistic experimentation, particularly in the realms of cinema and music, where avant-garde artists pushed the envelope and left a lasting effect. Unfortunately, avant-garde cinema and music is not what the masses wanted to see or hear. Like most of Europe at the time, they craved American entertainment films and jazz (or what they understood to be jazz). But both were considered highly “bourgeois” and so efforts were made to do away with them in favor of more ideologically sound forms. Yet despite an unofficial ban, jazz soon returned in a Sovietized form as dzhaz. And though unrealized, plans to construct a sovetskii Gollivud (a “Soviet Hollywood” that could produce domestic films in Hollywood style) indicate that demand for foreign-style films also had not ceased. The task thus became one of creating domestic products that were both entertaining and enlightening.
I argue that it was the Soviet musical comedy of the 1930s – as developed by director Grigory Alexandrov and composer Isaak Dunaevsky – that best resolved the entertainment vs. enlightenment debate. This was achieved by the turn to a specifically musical (and American) genre in which, according to film scholar Rick Altman, music has the ability to temporarily “take over” the image track, causing the reality of the diegetic world to be cast aside for the ideal of the musical world. Naturally, the ideal space created by the musical numbers in these films always depicted the future utopian socialist world required by the tenets of socialist realism. Soviet audiences were thus able to have their comedic, “escapist” entertainment, filled with highly popular and memorable songs, yet in a way that was able to fulfill one of the central goals of socialist realism – the depiction of the Communist future in the present – in a way that pleased the authorities.

Using examples from Alexandrov and Dunaevsky’s four most famous films, Jolly Fellows (1934), Circus (1936), Volga-Volga (1938) and The Bright Path (1940), as well as materials obtainedthrough archival research conducted in Russia in 2008, the purpose of this paper, then, is todemonstrate how the director and composer looked to American models and chose a specificallymusical genre in order to achieve the perfect balance between entertainment and ideology. In the end, these films were so successful because they found the ideal space between Hollywood and Gollivud, and between jazz and dzhaz.

Virtual Setting, Redefined Boundaries: Music and the Alternative Taipei Newspaper Pots
Ma-dan Ho, National Taiwan University

One of the major impacts of modernization and globalization upon culture is the redefinition of the traditional meanings of cultural concepts such as mainstream, community, and setting. More particularly, technologies of print, electronic, and digital media require a thoroughgoing reconsideration by ethnographically oriented musicologists of the criteria by which they delimit their subject matters. In this paper, I discuss the “virtual” musical community centered around Pots, an alternative newspaper distributed in the city of Taipei, Taiwan, and argue that this distinctive soundscape reflects a reconfiguration of the boundaries between mainstream and “indie” cultures. Pots was founded in 1995 in the wake of the liberalization of Taiwanese society, following decades of martial law. Its motto reads “The voice of Generation Next…”, and it is particularly concerned with the contemporary youth subcultures of Taipei. The principal aim of Pots is to offer a medium through which oppressed voices from rock, jazz, experimental, and underground musics can speak out, by publicizing these musics which would not normally be promoted in more conventional papers. One of my principal arguments is thus the formation of a distinctive musical community, “alternative” in character and self-consciously opposed to mainstream culture, by means of a print technology which constitutes the setting or “place” where the members of this community meet and interact. At the same time, the free cost and ready availability of Pots both in hard-copy form (e.g. in CD stores and movie theaters) and online increasingly challenge attempts to establish a clear dichotomy. In part because of the strengthening and dissemination of the Pots community, music categorized as alternative now has a recognizably more mainstream character; while so-called mainstream music frequently reflects an “indie” spirit. The paper thus exemplifies the quintessentially fluid, dynamic, and unstable nature of modern urban society, in which various media not only transmit culture’s content and associated identities, but alter and transform them to such a degree as to necessitate extensive methodological rethinking by ethnographic researchers.