- In the ``low-frequency limit'', an open tube is a direct acoustic correlate to the mechanical mass.
- In the ``low-frequency limit'', a cavity is a direct acoustic correlate to the mechanical spring.
- Using Newton's Second Law to model the air mass in the tube and Hooke's Law for fluids to model the compressibility of the air cavity, a sinusoidal solution can be found with natural frequency
, where
*c*is the speed of sound in air,*A*is the cross-sectional area of the tube,*L*is the length of the tube, and*V*is the volume of the cavity.

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