Cunningham, S. 2004.
Suitability of MusicXML as a format for computer music notation and
In Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Applied
Computing 2004, Lisbon, Portugal, [n.p.].
[ .pdf ]
Positive review of MusicXML as an interchange format. Impressed by potential for flexibility and responsiveness to user feedback. Wishes for a stand-alone viewer for MusicXML files.
Good, M. 2001a.
MusicXML: An internet-friendly format for sheet music.
In Proceedings of the XML Conference 2001, Orlando, FL,
[ .html ]
Highlights the limitations of MIDI as an interchange format. MusicXML had just begun its public beta. Compares MusicXML with an XML version of MIDI as well as importations from each format into Finale and Sibelius. Attempts to reach out to new software developers. Touches on security issues if the format becomes successful, and posits XML keys as a solution.
Good, M. 2001b.
MusicXML for notation and analysis.
In W. B. Hewlett and E. Selfridge-Field (Eds.), The Virtual
Score: Representation, Retrieval, Restoration, Number 12 in Computing in
Musicology, pp. 113-24. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Presents a mark-up language for representing music to solve the tower of Babel problem. Designed to be sufficient, not optimal. Original presentation of the MusicXML DTD, including examples of how it might replace Humdrum or MuseData.
Good, M. 2006a.
Lessons from the adoption of MusicXML as an interchange standard.
In Proceedings of the XML Conference 2006, Boston, MA,
[ .pdf ]
Discusses failures of other mark-up formats for music, including SMDL (ISO 10743) and NIFF. Emphasises usability at the language level and bi-directional exchange. Warns against the excessive overhead that standards organisation can cause, especially for small vendors.
Good, M. 2006b.
MusicXML in commercial applications.
In W. B. Hewlett and E. Selfridge-Field (Eds.), Music Analysis
East and West, Number 14 in Computing in Musicology, pp. 9-20. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press.
Details various commercial applications of MusicXML, including the most recent releases of Finale and Sibelius. Claims superiority over NIFF by example of Finale's MusicXML-based OMR system and Sibelius's less-successful, NIFF-bassed system. Also discusses use on digital music stands and in Internet publishing.
Roland, P. 2002.
The music encoding initiative (MEI).
In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Musical
Applications Using XML, pp. 55-59.
[ .pdf ]
Introduces the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI), based on the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). Concerned about scope, by analogy to TEI. Presents the MEI design principles: to be comprehensive, declarative, explicit, interpreted, hierarchical, formal, flexible, and extensible. Argues for DTDs over Schema.
Roland, P. 2003.
Design patterns in XML music representation.
In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Music
Information Retrieval, Baltimore, MD, [n.p.].
[ .PDF ]
Highlights the fundamental design principles of the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI): modularity, separation of data from metadata, reduction of learning requirements, and increasing legibility. Unlike MusicXML, strives to be designed without any application in mind, although acknowledges that this is not practical.
Wiering, F., T. Crawford, and D. Lewis. 2005.
Creating an XML vocabulary for encoding lute music.
In Humanities, Computers and Cultural Heritage: Proceedings of
the 16th International Conference of the Association for History and
Computing, Amsterdam, pp. 279-87.
[ .pdf ]
Separate project to encode lute tablature in an XML format, TabXML. Does not use MusicXML or the MEI project because of their overly hierarchical nature and emphasis on common-practice music. Can be translated to MusicXML for importation into Finale or Sibelius. Desires to interoperate with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) for historical documents.
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