# Synthesis Theory - Table of Content

### Note: The final examination is on December 14th

• Sampling (2.2.2)
• Aliasing (2.2.3)
• Linear Quantization (2.2.5)
• Dynamic range and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio
• Quantizatioin error
• Signal-to-quantization-error SQNR
• ```                    maximum signal amplitude
SQNR = -----------------------------------
quantization error noise amplitude
```
• Storage requirements
• Sine wave generation (Csound)
• Harmonics
• Pitch
• P-fields (toot.2)
• Carry, increment, and ramping (toot.11)
• ampdb(x): 60db=1000, 66db=2000, ..., 90db = 32000
• Pitch converters
• cps - cycles per second
• pch - octave point pitch-class (8ve.pc)
• oct - octave point decimal
• e.g: A440 = 440 (cps) == 8.09 (pch) == 8.75 (oct) == 7.21 (pch)
• octpch(pch), pchoct(oct), cpspch(pch), octcps(cps), cpsoct(oct)
• init- or control-rate only except the cpsoct(oct)
• Sine wave generation (C)
• Table Lookup Oscillators (3.1.3)
• Wave Tables (3.1.4)
• Table Lookup Procedure (3.1.5)
• Approximation Errors (3.1.6)
• (table size of 2**B)
• Truncation: 6B - 11 dB
• Rounding: 6B - 5 dB
• Interpolation: 12(B - 1) dB
• Table Lookup Oscillator Algorithm (3.1.7)
• Table Lookup Oscillator Applcations (3.1.8)
• "Classic" Ampitude Modulation
• Ring Modulation
• Ring Modulation with sawtooth waves

### Assignment #11 - Due: Dec. 11th

Use a linear interpolation ocillator to generate enveloped amplitude modulated sine wave output.

### Assignment #10 - Due: Dec. 4th

Use a linear interpolation ocillator to generate enveloped sine wave output.

### Assignment #9 - Due: November 28th

Same as Assignment #8 except linear interpolation table lookup method instead of truncation.

### Assignment #8 - Due: November 14th

Same as Assignment #7 except use table lookup method instead of sin() function

### Assignment #7 - Due: November 2nd

• Generate additive sawtooth wave using C
• Prompt for frequency, duration,and output filename
• Should have maximum number of harmonics
• Should have maximum gain structure

### Assignment #6 - Due: October 26th

Same as Assignment #5 except:
• Use cpspch() for pitches (A=440Hz)
• Use ampdb() for amplitude
• Add chorus effect, by using total of 7 oscilator instrument.
• See toot4 for an example.

### Assignment #5 - Due: October 19th

Produce the following with CSOUND:
• Use the music in p. 191
• Use sawtooth wave [1/n * sin(nF)]
• Use different envelope for each note
• Use linen, GEN5, and GEN7 at least once
• A = 450Hz

### Assignment #4 - Due: October 12th

Produce the following with CSOUND:
• Produce using Csound the music in p. 191
• Use triangle wave (GEN 9 or GEN10)
• A = 450Hz

### Assignment #3 - Due: October 5th

Produce the following with CSOUND:
• Tempo M.M. = 100
• Use sine wave (GEN10)
• A = 430Hz

#### Hints:

• The twelveth root of 2 is 1.059463094
• Use the instrument of the form:
• ```a1 oscil p4, p5, 1  ; where p4 is the amplitude and
; p5 is the frequency in the score file```