Keywords: binarization, grayscale-to-binary
Sankur and Sezgin (2001) lists 44 binarization methods, categorized
into six methods: histogram shape-based, clustering-based, entropy-based,
object attribute-based, spatial, and local.
Glasbey, C. A. 1993. An analysis of histogram-based thresholding algorithm.
Graphical Models and Image Processing, 55(6): 532-7. (11 algorithms).
Lee, S. U., S. Y. Chung, and R. H. Park. 1990. A comparative performance
study of several global
thresholding techniques for segmentation. Computer Vision, Graphics,
and Image Processing 52: 171-90.
Pal, N. R., and S.K. Pal. 1993. A review on image segmentation techiniques.
Pattern Recognition 26(9): 1277-94.
Sahoo, P. K., S. Soltani and A. K. C. Wang. 1988. A survey of thresholding
techniques, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 41: 233-60.
Sankur, B., and M. Sezgin. 2001. Image Thresholding Techniques: A Survey
over Categories. Pattern
Recognition, 2001. (under review) (44 methods)
Taxt, T., P.J. Flynn, and A.K. Jain. 1989. Segmentation of document
images. IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 11(12):
Trier, O. D., and A. Jain. 1995. Goal-directed evaluation of binarization
methods. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence17:1191-1201.
Trier, D., and T. Taxt. 1995. Evaluation of binarization methods for
document Images, IEEE Transactions on
Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence17: 312-15.
clustering (Otsu 1979)
moment-preserving method (Tsai 1984)
minimums-error method (Kittler and Illingworth 1986)
Otsu, N. 1979. A thresholding selection method from gray-level histogram.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics9(1): 62-66.
Tsai, W. H. 1985. Moment-preserving thresholding: A New Approach. Computer
Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 29: 377-393.
EXTRACTION OF BINARY CHARACTER GRAPHICS IMAGES FROM GRAYSCALE DOCUMENT
IMAGES KAMEL M, ZHAO A CVGIP-GRAPHICAL MODELS AND IMAGE PROCESSING 55 (3):
203-217 MAY 1993
An adaptive logical method for binarization of degraded document images
Yang YB, Yan H PATTERN RECOGNITION 33 (5): 787-807 MAY 2000
TextFinder: An automatic system to detect and recognize text in images
Wu V, Manmatha R, Riseman EM IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND
MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 21 (11): 1224-1229 NOV 1999
Analysis of fuzzy thresholding schemes Jawahar CV, Biswas PK, Ray AK PATTERN
RECOGNITION 33 (8): 1339-1349 AUG 2000
Integral ratio: A new class of global thresholding techniques for handwriting
images Solihin Y, Leedham CG IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND
MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 21 (8): 761-768 AUG 1999
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L. O'Gorman, "Binarization and Multithresholding of Document Images Using
Connectivity, " Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing 56, pp.
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A. Rosenfeld and P. D. L. Torre, "Histogram Concavity Analysis as an Aid
in Threshold Selection," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-13,
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J. S. Weszka and A. Rosenfeld, "Histogram Modification for Threshold Selection,"
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J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, "A New Method for Gray-Level
Picture Thresholding Using the Entropy of the Histogram," Computer Vision,
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T. Pun, "Entropic Thresholding: A New Approach," CVGIP: Graphical Models
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W. H. Tsai, "Moment-Preserving Thresholding: A New Approach," Computer
Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 29, pp. 377--393, Mar. 1985.
Y. Liu and S. N. Srihari, "Document Image Binarization Based on Texture
Features," IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 19,
pp. 540--544, May 1997.
R. G. Casey and K. Y. Wong, "Document Analysis System and Techniques,"
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Dekker, New York, N.Y. , pp. 1--36, 1990.
M. Kamel and A. Zhao, "Extraction of Binary Character/Graphics Images from
Grayscale Document Images," Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing
55, pp. 203--217, May. 1993.
Ø. D. Trier and T. Taxt, "Evaluation of Binarization Methods for
Document Images," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis And Machine Intelligence
17, pp. 312--315, March 1995.
V. Wu, R. Manmatha, and E. M. Riseman, "Finding Text In Images," Proc.
of the 2nd intl. conf. on Digital Libraries. Philadaphia, PA , pp. 1--10,