Piezo Electric Devices
Air Pressure Sensors
Infrared (IR) sensors consist of an LED that emits an IR signal and an IR detector that changes value in the presence of an IR signal.
One of the easiest IR devices to use is the Sharp GP2G12, which contains both the emitter and detector in the same housing.
The Sharp GP2G12 outputs a variable voltage proportional to proximity that can be directly read from an analog pin of the Arduino.
Objects that are close enough to the emitter will reflect some of the IR signal back to the detector. NOTE: dark objects absorb IR signals very well.
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Gary P. Scavone