Discretization Methods:

There are a variety of approaches to solving continuous-time system equations using discrete-time methods. In general, a higher sampling rate will produce more accurate results. In this section, we overview several methods, including Finite Differences and the Bilinear Transform.

Backward Finite Differences

The Finite Difference technique replaces derivative expressions in differential equations with discrete-time difference approximations.

Centered Finite Differences

The Bilinear Transform

Finite-Differences vs. the Bilinear Transform

Impulse Invariance

Boundary Elements and Finite Elements

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