Frequency Modulation (FM) Synthesis

Frequency modulation (FM) involves the time-varying modification of the frequency of an oscillator using the output from another oscillator. FM techniques were pioneered by Edwin H. Armstrong for radio applications in the early 1930s (see FM Broadcasting Chronology for historical dates). The use of FM in computer music contexts was pioneered by John Chowning at Stanford University in the late 1960s and early 1970s (see the following interviews for a history of Chowning's work with FM synthesis: Aftertouch Magazine, A Talk with John Chowning, Part I, A Talk with John Chowning, Part II).

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